# Advanced Usage¶

## Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT)¶

Let us do an example that includes multi-qubit parameterized gates.

Here we wish to compute the discrete Fourier transform of
`[0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]`

. We do this in three steps:

- Write a function called
`qft3`

to make a 3-qubit QFT quantum program. - Write a state preparation quantum program.
- Execute state preparation followed by the QFT on the QVM.

First we define a function to make a 3-qubit QFT quantum program. This is a mix of Hadamard and CPHASE gates, with a final bit reversal correction at the end consisting of a single SWAP gate.

```
from math import pi
def qft3(q0, q1, q2):
p = Program()
p.inst( H(q2),
CPHASE(pi/2.0, q1, q2),
H(q1),
CPHASE(pi/4.0, q0, q2),
CPHASE(pi/2.0, q0, q1),
H(q0),
SWAP(q0, q2) )
return p
```

There is a very important detail to recognize here: The function
`qft3`

doesn’t *compute* the QFT, but rather it *makes a quantum
program* to compute the QFT on qubits `q0`

, `q1`

, and `q2`

.

We can see what this program looks like in Quil notation by doing the following:

```
print(qft3(0, 1, 2))
```

```
H 2
CPHASE(1.5707963267948966) 1 2
H 1
CPHASE(0.7853981633974483) 0 2
CPHASE(1.5707963267948966) 0 1
H 0
SWAP 0 2
```

Next, we want to prepare a state that corresponds to the sequence we want to compute the discrete Fourier transform of. Fortunately, this is easy, we just apply an \(X\)-gate to the zeroth qubit.

```
state_prep = Program().inst(X(0))
```

We can verify that this works by computing its wavefunction. However, we
need to add some “dummy” qubits, because otherwise `wavefunction`

would return a two-element vector.

```
add_dummy_qubits = Program().inst(I(1), I(2))
wavefunction = qvm.wavefunction(state_prep + add_dummy_qubits)
print(wavefunction)
```

```
(1+0j)|001>
```

If we have two quantum programs `a`

and `b`

, we can concatenate them
by doing `a + b`

. Using this, all we need to do is compute the QFT
after state preparation to get our final result.

```
wavefunction = qvm.wavefunction(state_prep + qft3(0, 1, 2))
print(wavefunction.amplitudes)
```

```
array([ 3.53553391e-01+0.j , 2.50000000e-01+0.25j ,
2.16489014e-17+0.35355339j, -2.50000000e-01+0.25j ,
-3.53553391e-01+0.j , -2.50000000e-01-0.25j ,
-2.16489014e-17-0.35355339j, 2.50000000e-01-0.25j ])
```

We can verify this works by computing the (inverse) FFT from NumPy.

```
from numpy.fft import ifft
ifft([0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0], norm="ortho")
```

```
array([ 0.35355339+0.j , 0.25000000+0.25j ,
0.00000000+0.35355339j, -0.25000000+0.25j ,
-0.35355339+0.j , -0.25000000-0.25j ,
0.00000000-0.35355339j, 0.25000000-0.25j ])
```

## Classical Control Flow¶

Here are a couple quick examples that show how much richer the classical
control of a Quil program can be. In this first example, we have a
register called `classical_flag_register`

which we use for looping.
Then we construct the loop in the following steps:

- We first initialize this register to
`1`

with the`init_register`

program so our while loop will execute. This is often called the*loop preamble*or*loop initialization*. - Next, we write body of the loop in a program itself. This will be a program that computes an \(X\) followed by an \(H\) on our qubit.
- Lastly, we put it all together using the
`while_do`

method.

```
# Name our classical registers:
classical_flag_register = 2
# Write out the loop initialization and body programs:
init_register = Program(TRUE([classical_flag_register]))
loop_body = Program(X(0), H(0)).measure(0, classical_flag_register)
# Put it all together in a loop program:
loop_prog = init_register.while_do(classical_flag_register, loop_body)
print(loop_prog)
```

```
TRUE [2]
LABEL @START1
JUMP-UNLESS @END2 [2]
X 0
H 0
MEASURE 0 [2]
JUMP @START1
LABEL @END2
```

Notice that the `init_register`

program applied a Quil instruction directly to a
classical register. There are several classical commands that can be used in this fashion:

`TRUE`

which sets a single classical bit to be 1`FALSE`

which sets a single classical bit to be 0`NOT`

which flips a classical bit`AND`

which operates on two classical bits`OR`

which operates on two classical bits`MOVE`

which moves the value of a classical bit at one classical address into another`EXCHANGE`

which swaps the value of two classical bits

In this next example, we show how to do conditional branching in the
form of the traditional `if`

construct as in many programming
languages. Much like the last example, we construct programs for each
branch of the `if`

, and put it all together by using the `if_then`

method.

```
# Name our classical registers:
test_register = 1
answer_register = 0
# Construct each branch of our if-statement. We can have empty branches
# simply by having empty programs.
then_branch = Program(X(0))
else_branch = Program()
# Make a program that will put a 0 or 1 in test_register with 50% probability:
branching_prog = Program(H(1)).measure(1, test_register)
# Add the conditional branching:
branching_prog.if_then(test_register, then_branch, else_branch)
# Measure qubit 0 into our answer register:
branching_prog.measure(0, answer_register)
print(branching_prog)
```

```
H 1
MEASURE 1 [1]
JUMP-WHEN @THEN3 [1]
JUMP @END4
LABEL @THEN3
X 0
LABEL @END4
MEASURE 0 [0]
```

We can run this program a few times to see what we get in the
`answer_register`

.

```
qvm.run(branching_prog, [answer_register], 10)
```

```
[[1], [1], [1], [0], [1], [0], [0], [1], [1], [0]]
```

## Parametric Depolarizing Noise¶

The Rigetti QVM has support for emulating certain types of noise models.
One such model is *parametric Pauli noise*, which is defined by a
set of 6 probabilities:

- The probabilities \(P_X\), \(P_Y\), and \(P_Z\) which
define respectively the probability of a Pauli \(X\), \(Y\),
or \(Z\) gate getting applied to
*each*qubit after*every*gate application. These probabilities are called the*gate noise probabilities*. - The probabilities \(P_X'\), \(P_Y'\), and \(P_Z'\) which
define respectively the probability of a Pauli \(X\), \(Y\),
or \(Z\) gate getting applied to the qubit being measured
*before*it is measured. These probabilities are called the*measurement noise probabilities*.

We can instantiate a noisy QVM by creating a new connection with these probabilities specified.

```
# 20% chance of a X gate being applied after gate applications and before measurements.
gate_noise_probs = [0.2, 0.0, 0.0]
meas_noise_probs = [0.2, 0.0, 0.0]
noisy_qvm = api.QVMConnection(gate_noise=gate_noise_probs, measurement_noise=meas_noise_probs)
```

We can test this by applying an \(X\)-gate and measuring. Nominally,
we should always measure `1`

.

```
p = Program().inst(X(0)).measure(0, 0)
print("Without Noise: {}".format(qvm.run(p, [0], 10)))
print("With Noise : {}".format(noisy_qvm.run(p, [0], 10)))
```

```
Without Noise: [[1], [1], [1], [1], [1], [1], [1], [1], [1], [1]]
With Noise : [[0], [0], [0], [0], [0], [1], [1], [1], [1], [0]]
```

## Parametric Programs¶

A big advantage of working in pyQuil is that you are able to leverage all the functionality of
Python to generate Quil programs. In quantum/classical hybrid algorithms this often leads to
situations where complex classical functions are used to generate Quil programs. pyQuil provides
a convenient construction to allow you to use Python functions to generate templates of Quil
programs, called `ParametricPrograms`

:

```
# This function returns a quantum circuit with different rotation angles on a gate on qubit 0
def rotator(angle):
return Program(RX(angle, 0))
from pyquil.parametric import ParametricProgram
par_p = ParametricProgram(rotator) # This produces a new type of parameterized program object
```

The parametric program `par_p`

now takes the same arguments as `rotator`

:

```
print(par_p(0.5))
```

```
RX(0.5) 0
```

We can think of `ParametricPrograms`

as a sort of template for Quil programs. They cache computations
that happen in Python functions so that templates in Quil can be efficiently substituted.

## Pauli Operator Algebra¶

Many algorithms require manipulating sums of Pauli combinations, such as
\(\sigma = \frac{1}{2}I - \frac{3}{4}X_0Y_1Z_3 + (5-2i)Z_1X_2,\) where
\(G_n\) indicates the gate \(G\) acting on qubit \(n\). We
can represent such sums by constructing `PauliTerm`

and `PauliSum`

.
The above sum can be constructed as follows:

```
from pyquil.paulis import ID, sX, sY, sZ
# Pauli term takes an operator "X", "Y", "Z", or "I"; a qubit to act on, and
# an optional coefficient.
a = 0.5 * ID
b = -0.75 * sX(0) * sY(1) * sZ(3)
c = (5-2j) * sZ(1) * sX(2)
# Construct a sum of Pauli terms.
sigma = a + b + c
print("sigma = {}".format(sigma))
```

```
sigma = 0.5*I + -0.75*X0*Y1*Z3 + (5-2j)*Z1*X2
```

Right now, the primary thing one can do with Pauli terms and sums is to construct the exponential of the Pauli term, i.e., \(\exp[-i\beta\sigma]\). This is accomplished by constructing a parameterized Quil program that is evaluated when passed values for the coefficients of the angle \(\beta\).

Related to exponentiating Pauli sums we provide utility functions for finding the commuting subgroups of a Pauli sum and approximating the exponential with the Suzuki-Trotter approximation through fourth order.

When arithmetic is done with Pauli sums, simplification is automatically done.

The following shows an instructive example of all three.

```
import pyquil.paulis as pl
# Simplification
sigma_cubed = sigma * sigma * sigma
print("Simplified : {}".format(sigma_cubed))
print()
#Produce Quil code to compute exp[iX]
H = -1.0 * sX(0)
print("Quil to compute exp[iX] on qubit 0:")
print(pl.exponential_map(H)(1.0))
```

```
Simplified : (32.46875-30j)*I + (-16.734375+15j)*X0*Y1*Z3 + (71.5625-144.625j)*Z1*X2
Quil to compute exp[iX] on qubit 0:
H 0
RZ(-2.0) 0
H 0
```

A more sophisticated feature of pyQuil is that it can create templates of Quil programs in
ParametricProgram objects. An example use of these templates is in exponentiating a Hamiltonian
that is parametrized by a constant. This commonly occurs in variational algorithms. The function
`exponential_map`

is used to compute exp[i * alpha * H] without explicitly filling in a value for
alpha.

```
parametric_prog = pl.exponential_map(H)
print(parametric_prog(0.0))
print(parametric_prog(1.0))
print(parametric_prog(2.0))
```

This ParametricProgram now acts as a template, caching the result of the `exponential_map`

calculation so that it can be used later with new values.

## Connections¶

Larger pyQuil programs can involve more qubits and take a longer time to run. Instead of running the
program immediately, you can insert your programs into a queue. This is done with the `use_queue`

parameter to QVMConnection. By default, this parameter is set to False which means it skips
the queue and runs it immediately. However, the QVM will reject programs that are more than
19 qubits or take longer than 10 seconds to run. Therefore, to run programs of a larger size you must
set the `use_queue`

parameter to True which has more overhead.

```
from pyquil.quil import Program
from pyquil.api import QVMConnection
qvm = QVMConnection(use_queue=True)
qvm.run(Program(X(0).measure(0, 0), [0])
```

The Forest queue also allows an asynchronous mode of interaction with methods postfixed with _async. This means that there is a seperate query to post a job and to get the result.

```
from pyquil.quil import Program
from pyquil.gates import X, H, I
from pyquil.api import QVMConnection
qvm = QVMConnection()
job_id = qvm.run_async(Program(X(0)).measure(0, 0), [0])
```

The job_id is a string that uniquely identifies the job in Forest. You can use the .get_job method on QVMConnection to get the current status.

```
job = qvm.get_job(job_id)
if not job.is_done():
time.sleep(1)
job = qvm.get_job(job_id)
print(job.result())
```

```
[[1]]
```

The wait_for_job method periodically checks for updates and prints the job’s position in the queue, similar to the above code.

```
job = qvm.wait_for_job(job_id)
print(job.result())
```

```
[[1]]
```

## Optimized Calls¶

This same pattern as above applies to the `wavefunction()`

,
`expectation()`

and `run_and_measure()`

.
These are very useful if used appropriately: They all execute a given program *once and only once*
and then either return the final wavefunction or use it to generate expectation values or a
specified number of random bitstring samples.

Warning

This behavior can have unexpected consequences if the program that prepares the final state
is non-deterministic, e.g., if it contains measurements and/or noisy gate applications.
In this case, the final state after the program execution is itself a random variable
and a single call to these functions therefore **cannot** sample the full space of outcomes.
Therefore, if the program is non-deterministic and sampling the full program output distribution
is important for the application at hand, we recommend using the basic
`run()`

API function as this re-runs the full program for every
requested trial.